1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1 Novokain 0.5%, 1% and 2% solution
1.2 Active ingredient is procaine - β-diethylaminoethyl ester p-aminobenzoic acid hydrochloride. Synonyms: procaine, aminocaine, cytocaine, pancaine, sintocaine.
1.3. Novocaine solution is a clear, colorless liquid or with light yellow color, without visible mechanical impurities. Each ml of Novocaine solution 0.5%, 1% and 2% contains 5.0; 10.0 and 20.0 mg of procaine, respectively.
1.4 The drug is pre-packed in vials or bottles by 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 250 ml. The drug should be stored under list B in dry place, protected from sunlight within the temperature range 0°C to +25ºC. Shelf life of the drug is 2 years.
2. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
2.1 Novocaine has local anesthetic effect and broad spectrum of therapeutic action. Novocaine has a general effect on the body, reduces generation of acetylcholine and reduces excitability of peripheral cholinergic systems, providing blocking effect on autonomic ganglia, reduces smooth muscle spasms, reduces excitability of the heart muscle and excitability of motor areas of cerebral cortex.
2.2 Novocaine is rapidly hydrolyzed in the body generating para-aminobenzoic acid and deetilaminoetanol which are pharmacologically active substances. Para-aminobenzoic acid (vitamin H) is a component of folic acid molecule, has antihistaminic properties and participates in detoxification processes, has antisulfanilamidic action. Deetilaminoetanol has mild vasodilating properties.
2.3 Novocaine acts quickly and briefly. In order to reduce intake and elongation of Novocaine action 1 drop of epinephrine hydrochloride 0.1% solution and 2-10 ml Novocaine shall be added to local anesthesia.
2.4. In toxic doses Novocaine causes excitation and then paralysis of the central nervous system.
3. DRUG USAGE PROCEDURE
3.1 Novocaine is administered for infiltration anesthesia as 0.25% - 0.5% solutions; for anesthesia under A.V. Vishnevsky method (tight creeping infiltration) - 0.125- 0.25%; for spinal anesthesia - 1-2%.
When applying novocaine solutions as local anesthetic its concentration and volume depend on the nature of surgery, method of application, conditions and weight of animal.
3.2 In combination with specific and symptomatic agents the novocaine solution is administered in animals for treatment of various non-infectious diseases. It is used for treatment of stomach ulcers, atony with fore-stomach tympany and intestine, dyspepsia, spastic colic, mechanical intestinal obstruction, traumatic peritonitis reticuloperitonitis, spasm of blood vessels (block by V.V. Mosin’s method and lumbar block); for treatment of bronchopneumonia, catarrhal pneumonia, pulmonary edema and hyperemia (block by A.I Fedotov’s method).
In ophthalmology Novocaine is used for treatment of keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and periodic eye inflammation in horses (suborbital block).
In surgery Novocaine is used for treatment of wounds, ulcers, fistulas, myositis, papillomatosis (intra-genicular or intravenously).
In obstetric practice Novocaine is administered for treatment of metritis, endometritis, metrocolpocele, retention of placenta in cows and goats (paranephric block), serous-catarrhal mastitis (cisternal injection of 0.5% solution by 30-50 ml in the affected udder portion and Novocaine blockade by Bashkirov’s or by Logvinova’s method).
3.3 Novocaine 0.5% solution is administered for Novocaine blockade of splanchnic nerves and border symptomatic trunks by using Novocaine block by Mosin’s method. Solution is administered at intersection of the last rib front edge with lateral edge of the rib eye up to the second last dorsal vertebra. In cattle and horses the drug is injected by 0.5 ml per 1 kg body weight; in pigs, dogs, sheep and goats by 15-20 ml; in foxes, rabbits and cats by 3-5 ml per each side. For perirenal blockade (by Vishnevsky’s method) Novocaine is injected into the paranephric body in the form of 0.25-0.5% solution. Novocaine solution is also administered intravenously and intradermally (0.25-0.5%), intramuscularly (1-2%).
3.4 Highest single doses of Novocaine:
- in horses: 2.5 g,
- in cattle: 2.0 g;
- in ruminants and pigs: 0.5-0.75 g;
- in dogs: 0.5 g
3.5 For dilution of Novocaine 0.5%, 1%, 2% solutions to obtain 0.125-0.25% solutions 0.9% isotonic solution of sodium chloride or Ringer-Locke solution shall be used. These diluted solutions shall be prepared just before use.
3.6 Novocaine 0.5% solution can be used as solvent of antibiotics (bicillin, penicillin, streptomycin).
3.7 Side effects. In rare cases allergic reactions may be observed.
3.8 Contraindications. It is restricted to use the drug in animals exhibiting increased individual sensitivity to Novocaine. It is not recommended to use the drug in combination with sulfonamides due to possible reduction of antibacterial activity of the latter.
3.9 Animal products during treatment and after treatment may be used for food purposes without restrictions.
4. CLAIMS PROCEDURE
4.1 In case of inconsistency of the drug with requirements of this Instruction, its use should be discontinued and reported to the Uzbek State Scientific and Veterinary Drugs Control Laboratory at: 700178, Tashkent, No.1a, A.Yunusov Street. Tel. / Fax: 228-76-14, 229-30 - 47. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Simultaneously unpacked drug package should be sent to the laboratory address with the drug in quantity previously agreed with laboratory including detailed description of the nature of complaints regarding its inconsistency with this Instruction.